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Maintenance of Lead-acid Batteries

1. Lead-acid battery charging and maintenance


The most important use of lead-acid batteries is the charging and discharging of the battery. Scientific and reasonable charging and discharging of the battery can greatly improve the working efficiency and service life of the battery. There are generally two charging methods for lead-acid batteries, which are constant voltage charging method and constant current charging method. However, from the perspective of repair and maintenance, battery charging methods can be divided into four types, namely constant voltage charging method, constant current charging method, equalizing charging method and supplementary charging method. Each charging method is suitable for different battery conditions.


① Constant voltage charging method means that the charging voltage remains unchanged during the charging process, which is generally applicable to the normal charging of lead-acid batteries. The constant voltage charging method has the ability to automatically reduce the charging current at the end of charging, or even zero, without overcharging the battery; each group of batteries is charged in parallel, and the batteries with different discharge degrees do not affect each other when charging, which is more suitable for the normal charging of the miner's lamp ; The overall voltage is slightly lower than that of constant current charging, the phenomenon of electrolysis of water is less, it is more power-saving, and it is easy to manage. However, the constant voltage charging method has a large current at the initial stage of charging, which is easy to cause the active material of the plate to fall off and shorten the life of the battery plate; and at the later stage of charging, the current is too small to penetrate deep into the plate, and the lead sulfate deep in the plate cannot participate for a long time. Reaction, prone to "plate sulfation" phenomenon.


② The charging current of the constant current charging method remains unchanged throughout the charging process, and it has the disadvantage that the charging current cannot be reduced at the end of charging, which makes the water consumption in the lead-acid AGM battery larger and the power consumption is too much. The plate is damaged prematurely, which is suitable for the initial charging of lead-acid batteries.


③ Equalizing charging is essentially overcharging, and its charging method is to continuously charge for 24 hours according to the daily charging method. The difference reaches a more consistent state after equalization charging. Generally, equalizing charging should be carried out once a month, which is more conducive to the maintenance of the battery.


④ The purpose of the supplementary charging method is to deal with the abnormal phenomenon of the battery. This method can be used for the battery with slightly sulfated plates. The charging method is as follows: after the normal charging is completed, charge the battery at half the normal charging current for 3 to 5 hours, stop charging for 1 hour, and then charge for 1 to 2 hours, and repeat the process of stopping charging until the discharge capacity and voltage changes reach the same value. until normal. This method is often used in maintenance.


2. The discharge maintenance of lead-acid battery


The battery discharge process needs to determine the discharge current and discharge time of the battery, and the battery capacity and load conditions of different models are different, so the battery discharge needs to be determined according to the battery conditions. Over-discharge of the battery will greatly reduce the life of the battery. The termination of discharge is generally measured by the termination voltage, and the termination voltage should not be less than 1.80 V/cell. The connection bar used in the battery charging and discharging process will generate heat or excessive voltage drop. At this time, the connection bar should be treated, and the contact part between the connection bar and the terminal should be re-polished or the connection bar should be replaced to ensure the safety and efficiency of battery charging and discharging. . Battery discharge is generally concentrated in groups. If the voltage drop of a few of the battery cells is abnormal, the cause should be checked and dealt with in time, and the abnormal battery cells should be recorded and marked with data to avoid individual abnormal battery cells. Affects the entire battery pack. After the lead-acid battery is discharged, it needs to be charged in time, and the battery is not allowed to be discharged for a long time.


3. Routine inspection and maintenance of lead-acid batteries


During the use of the battery, the working state of the battery should be checked regularly, and the weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual routine inspections should be carried out. The content of weekly inspection and maintenance is to identify the battery voltage and ambient temperature, clean the connectors of battery dust and corrosion pollution, and check the status of the battery, battery connection wires, bolts and other accessories. Record and analyze; test the open circuit voltage quarterly; test the battery capacity of this lead-acid battery every year, record the data of each battery cell, and perform maintenance on abnormal battery cells.

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