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Common Faults and Solutions of Lead-acid Batteries

The working principle of lead-acid batteries is the bipolar sulfation theory, which uses an electrochemical system. The charging and discharging process of lead-acid battery materials is reversible. In the discharge state, the positive electrode is lead dioxide, the negative electrode is spongy lead, and the electrolyte is sulfuric acid solution. The three reactions convert chemical energy into electrical energy and release the reaction products. PbSO4 and H2O; PbSO4 on the positive and negative electrodes reacts with the electrolyte during charging to form PbO2 and sponge-like Pb respectively. In this process, electrical energy is converted into chemical energy and stored.


1. Sulfation of lead-acid battery plates


The acidification of the electrode plate is divided into two types: slight sulfation and severe sulfation, and different treatment measures are taken depending on the degree of acidification. When slightly sulfating, use balanced charging, and then adjust the specific gravity of the electrolyte. If the battery still cannot be charged and discharged normally, all the electrolyte in the battery tank should be taken out and replaced with distilled water for charging. Repeatedly replace the distilled water until the liquid color becomes clear. (commonly known as washing method), add electrolyte for charging. If the above method still cannot be charged normally, you need to take out the plate to clean the battery slot. After cleaning the electrode plate with distilled water, put it in a diluted alkaline aqueous solution and boil it with fire, then wash it with distilled water, reload it, and charge it according to the initial charging steps. If it still cannot meet the requirements, the battery electrode plate should be replaced.


2. Insufficient discharge capacity of lead-acid battery


The general reasons for the insufficient discharge capacity of the battery are insufficient specific gravity of the electrolyte, too low electrolyte level or loss of water in the battery. During the working process of the lead-acid battery technology, 2% to 3% of oxygen will be released from the electrolyte, which is caused by An important cause of battery water loss. Lead-acid batteries are mostly in a floating state during work, and there will be problems such as high floating charging voltage and high battery temperature during work. If the floating charging voltage cannot be adjusted in time, the process of battery water loss will be more serious. The water loss of the battery will reduce the discharge capacity. When the water loss rate reaches 3.5 mL/Ah, the battery discharge capacity will not reach three-quarters of the initial capacity of the battery; and the water loss of the battery will reach a quarter of the total water capacity. For a time, the battery has basically been scrapped. For the abnormal situation of the electrolyte, the method of refilling and adjusting the specific gravity of the electrolyte can be used for maintenance, which can generally meet the requirements.


3. Thermal runaway of lead-acid battery


The lead-acid battery material will generate heat during the working process, and the temperature in the battery will rise rapidly due to the superposition between the temperature and the current. If the temperature inside the battery is too high, it will have a serious impact on the battery. In the lighter case, the battery slot will be "bulging", making the battery capacity and voltage substandard, affecting normal use, and even affecting the entire power supply line. Batteries should maintain a suitable distance during use, avoid mixing old and new batteries, and strengthen the ventilation in the battery room to ensure the temperature of the battery pack.


The maintenance of lead-acid batteries can greatly improve the service life of the battery. In battery management, charge and discharge should be done well, a reasonable floating charge voltage should be set, and the battery should be routinely checked and maintained; abnormal conditions should be timely in the work of lead-acid batteries. Take care to ensure that the battery is in working condition.

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